Jul 14, 2008

Counting in Indonesian and Balinese, part 1

Ya, saya mau membicarakan cara penghitungan dengan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Bali. Cara penghitungan dalam bahasa Indonesia agak gampang dan polos; akan tetapi, cara tersebut dalam Bahasa Bali lebih sulit karena banyak kata-kata yang harus dihafalkan saja.

So, I want to discuss how to count in Indonesian and Balinese. Counting in Indonesian is rather simple and straightforward; however, the same process in Balinese is more difficult because of the many words that just have to be memorized.

Dalam bahasa Indonesia, cara penghitungan berdasarkan sistem desimal, jadi yang bisa berbahasa yang lebih terkenal (seperti bahasa Inggris, Perancis, Jepang, Korea, Tionghoa, dan sebagainya) bisa mengerti sistem tersebut dengan mudah.

In Indonesian, counting is based on a decimal system, so those who speak more well-known languages (such as English, French, Japanese, Korean, Chinese, and so on) can easily understand such a system.

Nomer bahasa Indonesia
(Numbers in Indonesian)

1 - satu
2 - dua
3 - tiga
4 - empat (atau singkatannya [or its abbreviation] pat)
5 - lima
6 - enam (atau singkatannya nem)
7 - tujuh
8 - delapan
9 - sembilan
10 - sepuluh (se- berarti 'one'; puluh berarti 'ten', jadi se+puluh adalah "one ten")

[
se- means 'one'; puluh means 'ten', so se+puluh is "one ten"]

11 - sebelas
12 - duabelas
13 - tigabelas
14 - empatbelas/patbelas
15 - limabelas
16 - enambelas/nembelas
17 - tujuhbelas
18 - delapanbelas
19 - sembilanbelas
20 - dua puluh
21 - dua puluh satu
30 - tiga puluh

[dan sebagainya]

100 - seratus [ratus = 'hundred']
200 - dua ratus
500 - lima ratus

1.000 - seribu [ribu = 'thousand']
2.000 - dua ribu

10.000 - sepuluh ribu
100.000 - seratus ribu
1.000.000 - sejuta [juta = 'million']
1.000.000.000 - milyar [milyar = 'milliard' = billion]

Awas - di Indonesia, tanda baca titik dipakai untuk memisahkan nol-nol di nomer "1.000", "10.000", dan lain-lainnya.

Caution - in Indonesia, the period is used to separate the zeros in the numbers "1,000", "10,000", and others.

Polos dan gampang, ya?

Straightforward and simple, right?

Sekarang di bawah ada cara penghitungan bahasa Bali. Di samping lain, walaupun cara penghitungan dalam bahasa Bali berdesarkan sistem desimal juga, ada lebih banyak kata hitungan yang aneh, yaitu tidak mengikuti pola ini. Jadi, kata-kata itu harus dihafalkan dan diingat aja.

(R) berarti "bahasa rendah", dan (T) berarti "bahasa tinggi".

Now, the counting system in Balinese is featured below.
On the other hand, although the way of counting in Balinese is also based on the decimal system, there are many more words that are rather unusual, such that they do not follow this pattern. So, those words simply must be memorized and remembered.

(R) means "low language", and (T) means "high language".


====

Nomer bahasa Bali
Numbers in Balinese

1 - sa, (a)besik (R), (a)siki (T)
2 - dua (R), kalih (T)
3 - telu (R), tiga (T)
4 - pat
5 - lima
6 - nem
7 - pitu
8 - kutus
9 - sia
10 - dasa
11 - solas
12 - roras
13 - telulas
14 - patbelas
15 - limolas
16 - nembelas
17 - pitulas
18 - pelekutus (!)

[Sekarang Anda harus berpikir bahwa sistem ini berisi keanehan]

[Now you must be thinking that this system has some peculiarities]

19 - siangolas (!)
20 - duang dasa
21 - selikur (!)

["Likur"?? Apa artinya? Sebenarnya, artinya "di belakang" nomer dua puluh.]

[Likur? What does that mean? It actually means "on the back" of twenty.
]

22 - dualikur
23 - telulikur
24 - patlikur
25 - selae (!)

[Eh? "Selae"? Ya, bener, artinya sebenang 25 buah mata uang berbolong atau "kepeng". "Lae" dari "lawe", yg berarti "benang".]

[Huh? "Selae"? Yeah, that's right, it means a string of 25 Chinese cash coins or "kepeng". "Lae" is from "lawe", which means "thread".]

26 - nemlikur
27 - pitulikur
28 - ululikur (ulu = kata kuno berarti "delapan" [Old form for "eight"]
29 - sangalikur (sanga = kata kuno berarti "sembilan")
30 - telung dasa
31 - telung dasa besik

Nomer bahasa Bali aneh yang lain
Other unusual Balinese numbers

35 - pesasur (bukan *telung dasa lima) [not *telung dasa lima]
40 - petang dasa (petang - kata bersengau [nasalized form] untuk "pat")
45 - setiman (bukan *petang dasa lima)

[sehimpunan 45 buah timbaga untuk jaring mancing]

['a set of 45 metal weights for fishing nets']

50 - seket (bukan *limang dasa)
75 - telung benang (bukan *pitung dasa lima)
100 - satus
150 - karobelah (bukan *satus seket)
175 - lebak (bukan *satus telung benang/*satus pitung dasa lima)
200 - satak (bukan *duang atus)

Kenapa rumit begini? Ya, ada berhubungan dengan transaksi di pasar-pasar, yang termasuk cara penghitungan mata uang Cina kuno yang bernama "kepeng". Jadi, ada banyak nomer-nomer di bahasa Bali yang melibatkan konsep yang berhubungan "kepeng". Saya mau menjelaskan lebih banyak di catatan blog di depan.

Why is it so complex? Well, there's a connection with transactions in the markets, which include the ways of counting the old Chinese coins called "kepeng". So, there are a lot of numbers in Balinese that involve concepts related to "kepeng". I will explain (these concepts) further in a future blog entry.

Sekian dulu - sampai nanti!

That's it for now - until the next time!

2 comments:

Hyunwoo Sun said...

Thank you SOOOOO much, ED!! This is sooo helpful!

정말 너무 도움이 되는 좋은 자료예요^^!!!!

Theresa said...

Terima kasih! :) This is quite similar to Bahasa Malayu. I can only count up to 5 though. This is really great! But extremely confusing.